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Glossary - Law

Above Ground Level AGL  
Above Mean Sea Level AMSL  
Accident • an occurrence that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and such time as all such persons have disembarked and the engine or any propellers or rotors come to rest, being an occurrence in which-
– A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:-
• Being in the aircraft; or
• Direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including any part that has become detached from the aircraft; or
• Direct exposure to jet blast-

• Except when the injuries are self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to passengers and crew; or
– The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that:
• Adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and
• Would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component-

• Except engine failure or damage that is limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories, or
damage limited to propellers, wing tips, rotors, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents, or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or
– The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
Act • the Civil Aviation Act 1990.
Aerobatic Flight (1) An intentional manoeuvre in which the aircraft is sustained inverted flight or is rolled from
upright to inverted or from inverted to upright position; or
(2) Manoeuvres such as rolls, loops, spins, upward vertical flight culminating in a stall turn,
hammerhead or whip stall, or a combination of such manoeuvres.
Aerodrome (1) Any defined area of land or water intended or designed to be used either wholly or
partly for the landing, departure and surface movement of aircraft; servicing of aircraft; and
(2) Includes any buildings, installations, and equipment on or adjacent to any such area used in connection with the aerodrome or its administration.
Aerodrome and Weather Information Broadcast AWIB  
Aerodrome Beacon ABN  
Aerodrome Elevation The elevation of the highest point of the landing area.
Aerodrome Flight Information Service AFIS AFIS provides information useful to pilots for the safe and efficient conduct of their flights.
It differs from ATC service in that pilots being provided with AFIS are responsible for assessing a situation based on information passed to them by the FSS and advising their intentions.
Other pilots in the vicinity hearing this exchange of RTF messages make their own decisions and, in turn, make known their intentions.
AFIS is provided by a FSS at selected non-controlled aerodromes.
In appropriate cases Flight Service Officers may also provide AFIS at controlled aerodromes outside the hours of attendance of ATC.
Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit AFRU  
Aerodrome Operational Area (1) The movement area at an aerodrome and its associated strips and safety areas; and
(2) Any ground installation or facility provided at an aerodrome for the safety of aircraft operations.
Aerodrome Traffic Circuit The pattern flown by aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aerodrome
Aeronautical Information Circular A notice containing information that does not qualify for the origination of a NOT AM or for inclusion in the NZAIP, but which relates to f1igh~ safety, air navigation, technical, administrative or legislative matters
Aeronautical Information Publication A publication issued by, or with the authority of, a State and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation
Air Traffic Control Service A service provided for the purposes of:-

(1) Preventing collisions:-

(a) between aircraft; and

(b) between aircraft and obstructions on any manoeuvring area; and

(2) Expediting and maintaining a safe and efficient flow of air traffic
Airworthiness Certificate (1) For a New Zealand registered aircraft, an airworthiness certificate issued by the Director under Part 21, Subpart H; and

(2) For a foreign registered aircraft, an airworthiness certificate issued by a competent authority of the State of registry:
Airworthy Condition The condition of an aircraft, including its components, fuel and other materials and substances
essential to the manufacture and operation of the aircraft, that complies with all the requirements
prescribed by the Civil Aviation Rules relating to design, manufacture, maintenance, modification, repair, and safety.
Alerting Service An air traffic service provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding aircraft in need of search
and rescue aid, and to assist such organisations as required
An alerting service is provided to aircraft that:
(a) are provided with an air traffic control service; or
(b) file a flight plan; or
(c) submit a SARWATCH; or
(d) are known by any air traffic service to be in need of assistance
(includes unlawful interference).
AlP Supplement Temporary changes to the information contained in the NZAIP which are published by means of special pages
Altitude The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level
Apron A defined area on a land aerodrome intended to accommodate aircraft for the purpose of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refuelling, parking, or maintenance
ATC Clearance Authorisation for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit ,
ATC Instruction A directive issued by ATC for the purpose of requiring a pilot to take a specific action
Automatic Terminal Information Service ATIS  
Automatic Weather Station AWS  
Aviation Event an event to be conducted below the minimum safe heights prescribed under Part 91 that is—
(1) an air show or practice for an air show; or
(2) an air race or practice for an air race; or
(3) an aerobatic competition; or
(4) aerobatic training or practice
AWIB Service An automatic broadcast of aerodrome and weather information provided specifically for the
facilitation of aviation, and for the avoidance of doubt, an AWIB service is not an air traffic service.
Basic Weather Report A verbal comment, in support of aviation, describing any of the following current weather conditions observed at a particular place or airspace:
(1) wind direction and strength:
(2) mean sea level air pressure:
(3) air temperature:
(4) weather conditions and cloud cover
Ceiling The height above ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 20 000 feet covering more than half the sky
Civil Aviation Rules CAR  
Controlled Flight Any flight that is subject to an ATC clearance:
Cost Sharing Flight Any flight that is performed solely for the carriage of persons where-

(1) The flight is not advertised to the public; and

(2) The crew members receive no payment or other reward for their services; and

(3) The persons on the aircraft, including the crew members, share equally in the costs of the
flight; and
(4) No payment or other reward is required of a person on the flight other than that specified in subparagraph (3):
Cross-Country Flight A flight which extends beyond 25 nautical miles in a straight line distance from the centre of the aerodrome of departure
Dangerous Goods Articles or substances that are capable of posing risk to health, safety, property, or the environment and—
(a) are listed in, or classified in accordance with, the ICAO’s Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air; or
(b) have properties that would result in the articles or substances being classified as dangerous goods under the ICAO’s Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
Day The hours between the beginning of morning civil twilight and the end of evening civil twilight.
Displaced Runway Threshold DTHR  
Dual Flight Time Flight time during which a person is receiving flight instruction from an appropriately licensed and rated pilot on board a dual control aircraft
Emergency Locator Transmitter ELT  
Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Equipment that broadcasts a distinctive signal on a designated radio frequency to facilitate a search and rescue operation
Evening Civil Twilight ECT  
Final Approach and Take-Off Area FATO  
Final Reserve Fuel the minimum quantity of fuel required to provide a margin to secure the safe completion of a flight in the event of any unplanned manoeuvring in the vicinity of the destination or alternate or a suitable aerodrome, as the case may be, and in ordinary circumstances remains on board until completion of the landing
Fit and Proper Person A person who satisfies the fit and proper person test specified in the Act
Flight Information Service An air traffic service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information intended for the safe and efficient conduct of flights
Flight Manual A manual associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations within' which the aircraft may be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew
members for the safe operation of the aircraft.
Flight Plan Specified information provided to ATS units, relative to an intended flight, or portion of a flight, of an aircraft.
Flight Time The total time from the moment the aircraft first moves under its own power for the purpose of
taking off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight.
Height The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified datum and includes the vertical dimension of an object
Hover Taxi operation over the surface of an aerodrome within a height band associated with ground effect and at speeds associated with air taxiing
Incident Any occurrence, other than an accident, that is associated with the operation of an aircraft and
affects or could affect the safety of operation
Landing Area That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft
Medical Examiner 1 ME1 A medical examiner who holds a Medical Examiner 1 Certificate issued under the Act
Medical Examiner 2 ME2 A medical examiner who holds a Medical Examiner 2 Certificate issued under the Act
Minimum Equipment List MEL  
Morning Civil Twilight MCT  
Night The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight
NOTAM A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the
establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations
Passenger in relation to an aircraft, means any person carried by the aircraft, other than a crew member
Personal Locator Beacon equipment that broadcasts a distinctive signal on a designated radio frequency to facilitate a search and rescue operation, is designed to be carried on a person, and is manually activated
Persons On Board POB  
Pilot-In-Command in relation to any aircraft, means –
The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft
QNH QNH An altimeter sub-scale setting to obtain elevation when on the ...
Rating An authorisation entered on or associated with a licence or certificate and forming part of it, stating special conditions, privileges or limitations relating to the licence or certificate
SARTIME The time, nominated by a pilot, for the initiation of alerting action if a report has not been received by that time:
Serious Incident  
Simultaneous Operations two or more aircraft, operating from parallel runways, taking off and/or landing at the same time. In this context take-off is from the start of the take-off roll to becoming airborne, and landing is from touchdown to completion of the landing roll
Take Off Weight The weight of the aeroplane at the commencement of the take-off run and includes everything and everyone carried in or n the aeroplane at the commencement of the take-off run
Technical Instructions ICAO Document 9284 Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air approved and published by decision of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organisation under Annex 18 of the Convention
Threshold that point where a 1:20 obstacle-free approach surface intersects the runway surface
Touchdown and Lift-Off Area TLOF  
Touchdown and Lift-Off Area (located at a heliport) TALO  
Type (1) in relation to the licensing of aviation personnel means all aircraft of the same basic design,
including all modifications thereto except those modifications which result in a significant
change in handling or flight characteristics; or
(2) in relation to the certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers, means those aircraft,
aircraft engines or propellers which are similar in design
UNICOM Service A ground radio communications service in the aeronautical mobile service providing local
aerodrome information for facilitation of aviation, and, for the avoidance of doubt, a UNICOM service is not an air traffic service.
VFR Flight A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules
Vicinity Of An Aerodrome an area around an aerodrome where aircraft carry out manoeuvres associated with entering, leaving, or operating within the circuit. The size of this area will depend on the type of aircraft operation in the circuit and shall not extend laterally beyond 10NM from the aerodrome
Visibility The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in unites of measurement, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent lighted objects by night
Visual Flight Rules VFR  
Visual Meteorological Conditions Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than specified minima
Visual Planning Chart VPC  
Visual Reference continuous reference to terrain (land or water)