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ATPL » Air Law – Helicopter » Airspace

37.75 Airspace

37.75.2 State the rules pertaining to operating VFR in the various classes of airspace. CAR 91 and AIP ENR

91.245 Operations in controlled airspace 

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (e) and (f), a pilot-in-command of an aircraft must not enter a control area or control zone designated under Part 71 unless the pilot-in-command obtains an ATC clearance to enter the control area or control zone.

(b) A pilot-in-command of an aircraft operating in Class A airspace must—

  • (1) operate the aircraft under IFR; and
  • (2) unless otherwise authorised by the ATC unit responsible for the class A airspace, maintain two-way communications with that ATC unit on the appropriate frequency.

(c) A pilot-in-command of an aircraft that operates in the following classes of airspace must maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC unit responsible for the airspace concerned on the appropriate frequency unless otherwise authorised by the ATC unit:

  • (1) Class B, C, or D airspace:
  • (2) Class E airspace under IFR.

(d) If different classes of airspace adjoin one above the other, a pilot operating at the common level may comply with the requirements of the less restrictive class of airspace.


37.75.4 Describe the vertical limits and purpose of control zones (CTR). CAR 71

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