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Instructor » Flight Training » Gyroplane Syllabus

Syllabus Summary

 

Preparation for flight and action after

 

Basic Concepts

  • Taxiing
  • Effect of Controls
  • Straight and Level
  • Climbing and Descending
  • Turns - Medium, C & D
  • Slow Flight

 

Circuits Training

  • Circuit Intro
  • Circuit Considerations
  • Engine Failure after Takeoff
  • Crosswind Circuits
  • Glide Approach
  • Vacating & Joining
  • Radio Failure
  • FLWOP

 

Advanced Manoeuvres

  • Steep Turns
  • Maximum Rate Turns

  • Short-Field Takeoff & Landing
  • Low Flying Intro
  • Low Flying Consolidation
  • Precautionary Landing
  • Terrain & Weather Awareness
  • Basic Mountain Flying

 

Instrument Flying

  • Compass Use

  • IF - Intro

  • IF - Limited Panel

  • IF - Unusual Attitudes

 


Preparation for flight and action after

Personal preparation

  • Be Fit and enthusiastic
  • Ensure Logbook records are neat and complete in all respects
  • Be able to Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the privileges, limitations and currency requirements of the applicable certificate

 

Aircraft documents

  • Demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the aircraft’s documents
  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the aircraft’s limitations

 

Weather, NZAIP and supplements

  • Obtain all Met data appropriate to the proposed or hypothetical flight
  • Obtain, review and demonstrate a thorough understanding of the relevance of NOTAM’s to the proposed or hypothetical flight
  • Demonstrate ability to analyse ARFOR’s, TAF, METAR and SPECI, SIGMET if applicable
  • Demonstrate a thorough understanding of the contents and use of the AIP Volume 4 and VNC
  • Demonstrate a thorough understanding of flight planning data and be able to make a sound go/no-go decision

 

Aircraft performance and operating requirements

  • (1) Use all appropriate performance charts, tables and data
  • (2) Use the appropriate conditions to accurately and quickly calculate the take-off and landing distance 
  • Complete the calculations required in (1) and (2) within 30 minutes
  • Ensure sufficient runway length is available for take-off and landing by correctly comparing distance required to distance available
  • Demonstrate a thorough knowledge of all seasonal factors affecting aircraft performance

 

Fuel management

  • Accurately calculate fuel requirements, including reserves
  • Accurately establish the quantity of fuel on board and convert this to flight time, including reserve
  • Correctly operate the auxiliary fuel pump in accordance with the aircraft’s flight manual
  • Select the appropriate fuel tank for start, taxi and take-off in accordance with the aircraft’s flight manual
  • Monitor tank selection and fuel consumption in flight converting to flight time remaining, including reserves

 

Aircraft loading: Including fuel, oil and baggage

  • Demonstrate ability to calculate takeoff and landing weight accurately and quickly
  • Accurately determine Centre of Gravity position for take-off and landing
  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the principles of loading and load security
  • Complete all performance calculations accurately and in a timely manner

 

Pre-flight

  • Conduct the pre-flight inspection thoroughly and in accordance with the Pilot’s Operating Handbook
  • Identify and explain the purpose of significant aircraft features 
  • Correctly store and secure baggage, freight and loose articles

 

Emergency equipment

  • Ensure passengers are closely supervised on the movement area
  • Brief passengers fully on position and use of emergency equipment
  • Ensure passengers can operate doors and briefs on any alternative means of escape
  • Ensure passengers can operate seat belts and shoulder restraints and ensure they are secure
  • Brief passengers fully on the location and operation of an Emergency Transmitter 
  • Brief passengers on smoking rules, and does not permit it
  • Brief passengers thoroughly on actions in the event of an emergency and to keep hands and feet clear of controls at all times

 

Engine Start, Warm Up and Shutdown

  • Correctly position the aircraft for starting with emphasis on avoiding the creation of a hazard to aircraft, objects or people
  • Correctly set brakes
  • Start, check and operate the engine, observing all limitations, in accordance with the flight manual
  • Observe all engine limitations prior to taxiing in accordance with the flight manual or checklist
  • React rapidly in accordance with the aircraft’s flight manual in response to a simulated engine fire
  • Shut down the engine in accordance with the aircraft’s flight manual or checklist
  • Secure the aircraft in accordance with the aircraft’s flight manual and complete all post flight actions

 

Engine Checks, Run-up and Operation

  • Demonstrate knowledge of all engine operating limitations as specified in the aircraft’s flight manual and complete the run-up in accordance with the checklist
  • Operate the engine within its limitations at all times smoothly, precisely and prudently, avoiding sudden temperature changes

 

Pre Take-Off Checks

  • Complete pre take-off checks
  • Carry out a thorough pre take-off briefing, including the departure procedure (if applicable)

 

Air Traffic Service Procedure

  • Obtain and record ATIS
  • Obtain a clearance or broadcast intentions as and when appropriate
  • Evaluate ATS clearances and instructions, complying or rejecting as appropriate
  • Read back all appropriate instructions, information and clearances
  • Use correct aviation phraseology at all times
  • Communicate in an appropriate, authoritative and assertive manner
  • Record and set QNH, cross check altimeter(s) for accuracy by an acceptable method and can fully describe unattended altimeter setting procedures

 

Threat and error management

  • Exhibit a high level of situational awareness with emphasis on operational factors
  • Exhibit superior knowledge of human factors, particularly those relevant to the operation
  • Verbalise the decision making process with emphasis on any decision influenced by the operational environment

 

Radiotelephony tuning and procedures

  • Maintain a continuous listening watch, guarding the appropriate radio frequencies
  • Use a clear concise, and well modulated voice when communicating by radio
  • Communicate in an appropriately authoritative and assertive manner
  • Use correct aviation phraseology at all times

 

Lookout (critical task)

  • Maintain a continuous and systematic lookout both on the ground and in the air
  • Maintain VMC to ensure VFR flight at all times
  • Maintain a high level of situational awareness by building a mental picture of the relative position of all traffic which may potentially affect the flight

 

Flight Orientation

  • Demonstrate thorough knowledge of the airspace boundaries, VFR lanes and reporting points of the local area
  • At all times during the flight remain orientated with no likelihood of unintentionally infringing controlled airspace
  • Use VFR reporting points and make compulsory position reports correctly and punctually

 


Taxiing

 

Aim:

To manoeuvre the gyro on the ground at an appropriate speed, following a selected path, and stopping at a nominated point.

 

Considerations:

  • Speed Control
    • Inertia
    • Throttle operation
    • Braking operation
    • Fast walking pace
    • Surface, Slope, Wind
  • Directional Control
    • Nosewheel steering,
    • Differential braking
    • Rudder steering (slipstream)
    • Pedal operation
  • Control Positioning
    • Rotors turning or static
     

 

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
  • Rotor tip clearances
  • Slipstream considerations
  • Right of way rules
  • Aerodrome layout
  • Windsock location
  • Radio use

 

Aircraft Management:

  • T's and P's suitable
  • Park brake operation
  • Brake check
  • Avoid using power and brake together
  • Seat and pedal position
  • Caution surface conditions
  • No reverse available
  • Brake failure procedure

 

Human Factors:

  • Clean windscreen/visor
  • Blindspots
    • Move the head
     

 

Exercise:

  • Moving off
    • Lookout
    • Close throttle, release park brake
    • Increase power to overcome inertia
    • Close throttle
    • Test brakes
  • Maintaining constant speed
    • Anticipate power required
    • Taxi at a fast-walking pace
    • Avoid using power against brake
  • Maintaining constant direction
    • Look well ahead and to the sides, not just over the nose
  • Turning
    • Lookout - scan left & right for traffic/obstacles
    • Rudder, Power, &/or differential braking
  • Stopping
    • Lookout and anticipate nominated point
    • Throttle closed
    • Apply brake smoothly
    • Once stopped, park brake on
    • Set idle engine RPM
  • After landing (Rotors turning)
    • Bring gyro to a stop
    • Move stick fwd & keep into wind
    • Taxi slowly off runway
  • Brake Failure
    • Close throttle and steer away from obstacles
    • Collision imminent, Ignition off
     

 

Objectives:

  • Perform brake check smoothly as soon as the aircraft begins to move
  • Control taxi speed without excessive braking
  • Recognise and avoid hazards
  • Position controls correctly
  • Park gyro into wind for run-up, wheel straight
  • Park gyro correctly after flight

 


Effect of Controls

 

Aim:

To demonstrate the effect movement of the controls, have on the gyro in flight & on the ground.

 

Considerations

  • 3 axes of movement  
    • Longitudinal
      • Roll - Stick - Rotor disc
    • Lateral
      • Pitch - Stick - Rotor disc
    • Normal
      • Yaw - Pedals - Rudder
  • Production of lift
    • Aerofoil Shape
    • Angle of Attack
    • Rotor RPM
  • Inertia
  • Slipstream
    • Rudder
  • Throttle
    • Engine/Propeller RPM
  • Trim
    • Remove stick force
  • Attitude vs Horizon

 

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
    • See and be seen
    • Clock code
  • Handover of controls
    • "I have control/You have control"
    • "Follow me through"
  • Area Orientation
    • Local landmarks
  • IMSAFE
  • Fly using Horizon

 

Aircraft Management:

  • Throttle use
    • Appropriate grip
    • Smooth movements
    • Push forward to increase power
    • Pull back to decrease power
  • Stick use
    • Positive and smooth movements
  • Pedal use
    • Feet position
    • One pedal moves forward, the other moves back
  • T's & P's
    • Green & normal
     

 

Human Factors:

  • Blindspots
    • Move the head
  • Stress/Information Overload
    • Practise helps to overcome
     

 

Exercise:

  • Taxi to holding point
  • Attitude vs Horizon
  • Effect of primary controls 
    • Stick aft - Nose pitches up
      • Airspeed and Engine RPM reduces
    • Stick forward - Nose pitches down
      • Airspeed and Engine RPM increases
    • Stick left - Aircraft rolls left
    • Stick right - aircraft rolls right
    • Left Pedal - nose yaws left
    • Right pedal - nose yaws right
  • Airspeed
    • higher speed
      • Rudder more effective
      • Smaller movements required        
    • lower speed
      • rudder less effective
      • Larger movements required        
  • Slipstream
    • higher power
      • rudder more effective
    • lower power
      • rudder less effective
  • Power
    • increase
      • pitch up, yaw left, roll right *
    • decrease
      • pitch down, yaw right, roll left *
  • Trim
    • holding forward pressure
      • trim forward *
    • holding back pressure
      • trim back *
  • After landing
    • stop, stick forward then into wind, taxi off runway
     

 

 

Objectives:

  • Smooth positive movements of controls
  • Keep constant attitude with power changes
  • Appreciate less airflow over rudder = less effectiveness and more movement required
  • Lookout ahead and to the sides before turning
  • Locate reference points of area for orientation
  • Be able to trim the aircraft to maintain an attitude

 


Straight and Level

 

Aim:

To fly the gyro at a constant height, speed, and direction.

 

Considerations:

  • 4 forces acting in flight
    • Lift, Weight, Thrust, Drag
  • Equilibrium
    • Lift = Weight
    • Thrust = Drag
  • Production of Lift
    • Angle of Attack vs Airspeed
  • Power + Attitude = Performance
  • Trim to remove stick force

 

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
    • See and be seen
    • Sectored scan - 20 degrees/2 seconds
    • Clock code
  • Handover of controls
    • "I have control/You have control"
    • "Follow me through"
  • Area Orientation
    • Local landmarks
  • VFR Minima's
    • Distance from cloud
    • Visibility
  • IMSAFE
  • Fly using Horizon

 

Aircraft Management:

  • Throttle use
    • Appropriate grip
    • Smooth movements
    • Push forward to increase power
    • Pull back to decrease power
  • Stick use
    • Positive and smooth movements
  • Pedal use
    • Feet position
    • One pedal moves forward, the other moves back
    T's & P's
    • Green & normal
  • Cruise ERPM
  • Fuel Management

 

Human Factors:

  • Blindspots
    • Move the head
  • Stress/Information Overload
    • Practise helps to overcome
     

 

Exercise:

  • Select
    • ref point on horizon
    • ref altitude
     

 

  • Demo S&L 
    • note
      • attitude relative to horizon (level in pitch)
      • disc level in roll
      • in balance
      • trimmed to maintain attitude
      • airspeed
       
     

 

  • Maintain (LAI)
    • Lookout
      • ref point, heading constant
    • Attitude
      • visual check nose attitude, disc level 
    • Instruments
      • confirm visual check (ASI, ALT, ERPM, Balance)
       
     

 

Student practice:                   maintaining S&L

 

  • Off Altitude  
    • Small adjustment (<50’)        

      • Low     - raise nose slightly

      • High    - lower nose slightly

       
    • Large adjustment (>50’)        

      • Low     - Increase Power, raise nose

      • High    - Decrease Power, lower nose

       
     

 

  • Off Heading   

    • Stick & Rudder in direction required

     

 

  • Out of Balance 
    • String straight
    • Ball centred
     

 

  • S&L
    • lower power
      • note higher nose attitude
    • higher power
      • note lower nose attitude
       
     

 

Objectives:

  • Achieve and maintain S&L flight at nominated altitude +/- 100feet
  • Maintain a heading +/- 5 degrees
  • Trim the aircraft to maintain S&L flight
  • Maintain a good lookout for collision avoidance
  • Remain in VMC
  • Navigate aircraft from ADEP to nominated area and back
  • Demo familiarity with airspace boundaries
  • Monitor fuel consumption during flight
  • Confirm fuel pumps on and fuel pressure
  • Operating the throttle smoothly, avoiding abrupt temperature changes

 


Climbing and Descending

 

Aim:

To climb and descend with a constant airspeed and direction and level off at pre-selected altitudes

 

Considerations:

  • Forces acting in a Climb
    • Thrust = Drag + RCW
  • Climb Performance
    • Depends on power available
    • Best ROC speed
  • Normal climb
    • Full power
    • Best ROC speed
  • Cruise climb
  • Glide descents (engine failure)
    • Speed maintained by lowering the nose attitude
    • Use idle power
    • Best glide speed
  • Cruise descent 

 

Airmanship:

  • Lookout 
    • climb nose attitude = less vis
  • Situational Awareness
    • Threat & Error management
    • VFR Minima's
    • Minimum heights
    • Airspace limits
    • Listen out
  • Handover of controls
  • IMSAFE
  • Fly using Horizon

 

Aircraft Management:

  • Use of controls
    • Positive and Smooth
  • T's & P's
    • Green & normal
  • Climb operations
    • Time limit at full power
  • Descent operations
    • Prolonged glide
  • Fuel Management

 

Human Factors:

  • Altitude
    • Sinuses
    • Scuba diving and flying
  • Vision
    • Empty sky myopia
     

 

Exercise:

  • Select
    • Ref point
  • Climb (PAT) 
    • Select Altitude to level off at
    • Power
      • Full power (rudder)
    • Attitude
      • Set for best ROC
    • Trim
      • to maintain attitude
    • Lookout, Attitude, Instruments (LAI)
  • Level off (Anticipate altitude by 20 feet) 
    • Power
      • Decrease to cruise power (rudder)
    • Attitude
      • Select cruise speed
    • Trim
      • to maintain attitude
    • Lookout, Attitude, Instruments (LAI)
  • Descent
    • Select altitude to level off at
    • Power
      • Reduce to idle rpm (rudder)
    • Attitude
      • Set for best glide speed
    • Trim
      • to maintain attitude
    • Lookout, Attitude, Instruments (LAI)
  • Level off (Anticipate altitude by 50 feet)
    • Power
      • Increase to cruise power (rudder)
    • Attitude
      • Select cruise speed
    • Trim
      • to maintain attitude
    • Lookout, Attitude, Instruments (LAI)
     

 

  • Cruise Climb
    • Increase speed to more than best ROC
  • Cruise Descent 
    • Increase power to above idle
    • Increase speed to more than best glide
     

 

Objectives:

  • Maintain a nominated climb and descent speed +/- 5 knots
  • Maintain a heading +/- 5 degrees
  • Trim the aircraft to maintain climb and descent attitudes
  • Maintain T's & P's within acceptable limits
  • Clearing the flight path ahead of the aircraft
  • Remain in VMC
  • Navigate aircraft from ADEP to nominated area and back
  • Demo familiarity with airspace boundaries
  • Listen to communications from ground stations and other aircraft
  • Use the aircrafts radio to communicate clearly and concisely
  • Use correct aeronautical phraseology at all times

 


Turns - Medium

 

Aim:

To turn the gyro with a constant angle of bank, constant altitude, and in balance.

 

Considerations:

  • Lift vector
  • Adverse Yaw
  • Performance in the climbing turn

 

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
  • Scan technique
  • Listen out
  • Situational Awareness
  • IMSAFE
  • Fly using Horizon
  • VFR Minima's

 

Aircraft Management:

  • Throttle use
  • T's & P's - Green & normal
  • Fuel Management

 

Human Factors:

  • Disorientation
  • Resisting bank
  • Blindspots

 

Exercise:

  • Select ref point
  • Select ref altitude
  • Demonstrate medium turn
  • Note attitude, angle of bank, balance, trim, airspeed
  • Turn Entry
  • Turn Maintenance
  • Turn Exit
  • Climbing Turn
  • Descending Turn

 

Lesson Objectives:

  • Trim the aircraft to maintain level, climb and descent attitudes
  • Maintain T's & P's within acceptable limits
  • Clearing the flight path ahead of the aircraft
  • Entering, maintaining, and exiting from level turning manoeuvres with smooth and coordinated control applications, maintaining altitude +/-100 feet and no major deflection in balance
  • Maintaining situational awareness and orientation through lookout and the selection of a suitable reference point
  • Maintain a nominated level, climb and descent speeds +/- 5 knots
  • Remain in VMC

 

General Objectives

  • Navigate aircraft from ADEP to nominated area and back
  • Demo familiarity with airspace boundaries
  • Listen to communications from ground stations and other aircraft
  • Use the aircrafts radio to communicate clearly and concisely
  • Use correct aeronautical phraseology at all times

 


Slow Flight

 

Aim:

To slow the gyro, control it in straight and level and turning flight, maintaining a constant altitude at a low airspeed and return it safely to normal operating airspeeds.

 

Considerations:

  • Power available vs Power required graph

 

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
  • Listen out
  • Situational Awareness
  • IMSAFE
  • Fly using Horizon
  • VFR Minima's

 

Aircraft Management:

  • Throttle use
  • T's & P's - Green & normal
  • Fuel Management

 

Human Factors:

  • Blindspots

 

Exercise:

  • Select reference point
  • Select reference altitude
  • Demonstrate medium turn
  • Note: attitude, angle of bank, balance, trim, airspeed
  • Turn Entry
  • Turn Maintenance
  • Turn Exit
  • Climbing Turn
  • Descending Turn

 

Lesson Objectives:

  • Trim the aircraft to maintain level, climb and descent attitudes
  • Maintain T's & P's within acceptable limits
  • Clearing the flight path ahead of the aircraft
  • Entering, maintaining, and exiting from level turning manoeuvres with smooth and coordinated control applications, maintaining altitude +/-100 feet and no major deflection in balance
  • Maintaining situational awareness and orientation through lookout and the selection of a suitable reference point
  • Maintain a nominated level, climb and descent speeds +/- 5 knots
  • Remain in VMC

 

General Objectives

  • Navigate aircraft from ADEP to nominated area and back
  • Demo familiarity with airspace boundaries
  • Listen to communications from ground stations and other aircraft
  • Use the aircrafts radio to communicate clearly and concisely
  • Use correct aeronautical phraseology at all times

 


Circuit Intro

AIM:          To fly an orderly pattern around the aerodrome circuit in accordance with NZAIP procedures using the most suitable runway

 

CONSIDERATIONS:

 

Take Off

  • Swing on T/O       
    • Slipstream      
      • Yaw Left      Keep straight
    • Torque             
      • Roll right       on ref point
  • Wind                    
    • Crosswind      
      • a/c weathercocks into wind
    • Headwind      
      • shorter ground roll
      • steeper climb
      • better obstacle clearance
    • Tailwind         
      • greatly longer ground roll
      • shallow climb
      • poor obstacle clearance
       
     

Landing  

  • Wind                    
    • headwind       
      • shorter ground roll
      • steeper approach
    • tailwind           
      • longer ground roll
      • shallow approach
    • Power             
      • Controls ROD
    • Nose attitude 
      • Controls Airspeed
       
     

 

Airmanship:

Right of Way (ROW)

aircraft landing have ROW over aircraft taking off

aircraft in the circuit have ROW over aircraft joining

Follow at a safe distance, do not overtake or cut in front of other aircraft

All turns in the circuit direction

Circuit height 1000' AAL unless otherwise shown

Aircraft Management:

 

Human Factors:

IMSAFE

Situational Awareness

lookout/listen osut

close proximity to other aircraft

maintain awareness of 

your position

other aircraft in the circuit

joining aircraft

Runway perspective

 

AIR EXERCISE:

 

Takeoff

  • keep straight with rudder
  • keep level with stick
  • nosewheel balance 1foot off the ground
  • smoothly through to full power
  • fly level until 60 mph

 

After Takeoff

  • when established in the climb
  • positive ROC
  • 60mph
  • clear of all obstacles
  • trim

 

500ft Point

  • Pick ref pt 90° off the nose
  • turn onto crosswind
  • check a/c is tracking 90° to the runway

 

Turning Downwind

  • Pick ref pt 90° off the nose
  • turn onto downwind
  • check a/c is tracking parallel to the runway

 

Objectives (to be confirmed)

  • Flys an accurate circuit pattern maintaining the correct circuit height
  • Completes pre-landing checks in accordance with the checklist
  • Obtains clearances when required, requesting an alternative if necessary
  • Establishes a normal approach using full flap when appropriate
  • Maintains the recommended approach speed accurately
  • Maintains a steady, optimum approach profile, to the round out
  • Smooth, timely and correct control applications during transition from approach to round out and landing
  • Maintains runway centre line throughout the landing

 


Circuit Considerations

 


Engine Failure After Take-off (EFATO)

 


Crosswind Circuits

 


Glide Approach

 


Vacating & Joining

 


Radio Failure

 


Forced Landing Without Power (FLWOP)

 


Steep Turns

 


Short Field Take-off & Landing

 


Low Flying Intro

 


Low Flying Consolidation

 


Precautionary Landing

 


Terrain & Weather Awareness

 


Basic Mountain Flying