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Instructor » Flight Training » Gyroplane Syllabus

Aircraft Familiarisation

 

Aim: To become familiar with the component parts, controls, and systems of the aircraft.

Explanation of the aircraft:

  • Component parts of the aircraft
  • Main flight controls
  • Engine controls

Explanation of the cockpit layout and systems:

  • Operation of flying controls
  • Operation of engine controls
  • Flight instruments/Engine instruments
  • Electrical system
  • Fuel system
  • Operation of safety equipment

Check lists and drills:

  • Use of check lists and drills suitable for aircraft type
  • Instinctive knowledge of position of controls

Emergency drills:

  • Action in the event of fire; in the air and on the ground
  • Failure of equipment or systems
  • Escape drills

 

Preparation for flight and Action after flight

 

Aim: To understand how to prepare the aircraft and pilot for flight, and to leave the aircraft after flight.

Airfield Rules/Procedure/Safety:

  • Windsock
  • Fuel storage
  • Fire extinguisher/s
  • Smoking

Student Comfort:

  • Seating and pedal position
  • Suitable clothing for conditions expected

Flight Authorisation and aircraft acceptance:

  • Pre-flight planning
  • Aircraft documentation
  • Air traffic control information
  • Personal equipment

Pre-flight checks:

  • Use of manufacturer’s check list or mnemonic
  • Explanation of extra items to check if aircraft just rigged

External checks:

  • Position of aircraft suitable for starting
  • Fire extinguisher is available
  • Taxi path is unobstructed

Starting and warming up engine:

  • Pre-start checks
  • Stages and controls involved

Pre-Takeoff checks:

  • Use of manufacturer’s checklist or suitable mnemonic
  • Importance of this check (vital actions)

Running down and switching off:

  •  Stages and controls involved

Leaving the aircraft:

  • Suitably parked
  • Controls/Rotors locked or restrained
  • Brief external check

Completion of post-flight documentation:

  • Reporting of defects
  • Entries in personal flight log
  • Entries in Airframe/Engine log

 

Air experience

 

Aim: to introduce and become accustomed to the aircraft, the sensation of flying and to sample the aspect of the ground from the air.

  • Detailed instruction is not normally undertaken on this flight. It can, however, be a valuable lesson. It is an opportunity for the instructor to become acquainted with the student and decide upon the most suitable approach for subsequent instruction.
  • During the flight, all actions performed by the instructor should be accompanied by an explanation. Any sudden manoeuvring or expected turbulence should be discussed before it is encountered. The student should inform the instructor of any discomfort to allow a rapid return to the airfield.
  • During the latter part of the flight, the student should have the opportunity to handle the controls to provide a foundation for the next exercise.
  • If the student has some previous flying experience, then this exercise can be combined with ex 4 effects of controls.

 

Effects of Controls

 

Aim: To understand how each control affects the aircraft in flight.

Airmanship:

  • The importance of maintaining a good lookout

Methods of assessing aircraft attitude:

  • The horizon
  • Hands-off trim

Primary effects of controls:

Further effects of controls:

Effects of airspeed, slipstream, and torque on control response:

Effects of trim:

  • Hands-off trim
  • In flight adjustable trim (where applicable)

Use of other controls as applicable to type:

  • Cabin heat and ventilation

 

Taxiing

 

Aim: To safety control the aircraft while manoeuvring on the ground, in different wind conditions, and on different surfaces.

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
  • Suitable taxi speed
  • Serviceability checks of instruments (compass, ASI, etc.)

Use of controls during taxiing:

  • Headwind
  • Tailwind
  • Crosswind 

Emergencies:

 

Straight & Level flight

 

Aim: To attain and maintain flight in a straight line, and at a constant altitude.

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
  • Regular checks - Fuel state/consumption rate/engine instruments/etc.

Straight flight:

  • Visual reference point
  • Regaining and maintaining visual reference point
  • Use of yaw control to maintain balanced flight

Level flight, (Normal cruise power):

  • Power required dependent on load carried
  • Attitude appreciation and control
  • Use of in-flight trim control (if applicable)
  • Hands-off trim
  • Inherent stability
  • Use of altimeter to check level

Level flight, (Varying power settings and IAS):

  • Power provides height
  • Angle of attack provides speed
  • Power and angle of attack combine to give performance

Attitude control:

  • Use of pitch control to maintain constant attitude to achieve constant I.A.S.

 

Climbing

 

Aim: To enter and maintain a steady full-power-climb, and then return to level flight at a predetermined altitude. Also, to enter and maintain a steady cruise-climb.

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
  • Altimeter setting procedure
  • Position of aircraft in relation to Airways etc.
  • Awareness of any blind spots
  • Monitoring engine temperature

Entry to climb:

  • Power first, then attitude adjustment (PAT Power-Attitude-Trim)
  • Combining power and attitude for performance
  • Establishing and holding correct speed for climb

Levelling off:

  • Power first, then attitude adjustment (PAT Power-Attitude-Trim)
  • Maintenance of selected altitude

Maximum Angle of climb:

  • Speed to achieve performance required
  • Practical uses

Maximum Rate of climb

  • Speed to achieve performance required
  • Practical uses

Cruise climb

  • Speed to achieve performance required
  • Practical uses

 

Descending

 

Aim: To enter and maintain a steady glide-descent, then at a predetermined altitude, to return to level flight or climb. Also, to enter and maintain a steady cruise-descent.

Airmanship:

  • Lookout
  • Selection of clear airspace
  • Altimeter setting procedure
  • Regular application of power to ensure warm engine and clear plugs
  • Awareness of blind spots

Glide descent:

  • Control of airspeed
  • Speed for maximum glide range
  • Speed for minimum sink
  • Rate of descent/Angle of descent

Entry to the descent:

  • Power first, then attitude adjustment.  (PAT Power-Attitude-Trim) 

Levelling off

  • Power first, then attitude adjustment.  (PAT Power-Attitude-Trim) 

Powered descent:

  • Relationship between power and airspeed
  • Control of rate of descent
  • Control of angle of descent using visual reference point (as on final approach)

Cruise descent:

  • Uses

 

Medium level-turns up to 30 bank angles

Aim: To enter and maintain a medium (up to approx. 30 bank) turn whilst maintaining level flight, then to return to straight and level on a new heading.

Airmanship:

  • Instinctive lookout before turns
  • Allowance for wind and maintaining knowledge of position

Use of controls:

  • Co-ordination and interaction during turns
  • Use of pitch to control attitude for height
  • Use of power to control airspeed

Use of power

  • Slipstream and torque effect relative to direction of turn

Maintenance of attitude and balance:

  • Co-ordination and balance through the turn
  • Using structure of aircraft to provide datum during the turn
  • Awareness of heading during the turn
  • Use of visual reference points to ensure accurate rolling out of turns

 

Climbing and descending turns.

 

Aim: To enter and maintain a climb or descent whilst turning, or to enter and maintain a turn from a straight climb or a descent.

Airmanship:

  • Instinctive lookout before turns including above or below
  • Allowance for wind and maintaining knowledge of position

Use of controls:

  • Co-ordination and interaction during turns
  • Accurate speed and power control to control rate of climb or descent
  • Slipstream and torque effect relative to direction of turn

Maintenance of attitude and balance:

  • Co-ordination and balance through the turn
  • Using structure of aircraft to provide datum during the turn
  • Awareness of heading during the turn
  • Use of visual reference points to ensure accurate rolling out of turns
  • Use of low bank angles during climbing turns, to maintain rate of climb

 

Slow flight. (Vs + 2mph and Vs + 5mph)

 

Aim: To become familiar with the ‘feel’ of the aircraft in slow flight just above the stall- speed, and to recognise the symptoms of the incipient stall, and to restore aircraft to safe flight before the stall occurs

Airmanship

  • Lookout
  • Checks to ensure safe operation through exercise i.e.: height/location etc.

Characteristics of slow speed flight:

  • Control response
  • Effect of slipstream and torque (where applicable) Angle of attack (high nose attitude for 3-Axis aircraft)
  • Angle of attack
  • Wing dropping tendencies and difficulty in maintaining wings level
  • Extra emphasis on need to keep 3-axis aircraft in balance with use of rudder
  • Extra emphasis on need for careful use of roll control
  • Need for extra care when turning i.e., shallow angles of bank

 

Takeoff and climb to downwind position

 

Aim: To safely take off and climb the aircraft to position on the downwind leg at circuit height. Also, to land safely in the event of an engine failure after take-off or at any time in the circuit, and to decide against and take appropriate action, if for some reason, continuation of the take-off would be unsafe.

Airmanship:

  • Pre-take-off checks
  • Planning for power failure on every take off
  • Planning takeoff regarding wake turbulence from other aircraft
  • Planning takeoff regarding areas of low-level rotor/turbulence
  • Drills during and after take-off i.e., constant planning for an aborted takeoff, or a forced landing due to power failure on take-off or in the circuit, and monitoring engine temperature during the climb

Factors affecting the length of the takeoff roll and the initial climb:

  • Use of power
  • Correct lift-off speed
  • Use of flight controls and techniques
  • Wind: Nil-wind, Headwind, Crosswind
  • Ground surface: Concrete, Grass (long/short/soft/hard/dry/wet)
  • Ground gradient
  • Weight - Altitude - Temperature - Humidity
  • Maximum Angle of climb:
  • Maximum Rate of climb:

Undulating (rough field)

  • Premature lift-off and subsequent control

Short and soft field considerations:

Emergencies:

  • Abandoned takeoff
  • Engine failure after takeoff
  • Engine failure in the circuit

 

The circuit, final approach, and landing

 

Aim: To fly an accurate circuit and carry out a safe approach and landing.

Airmanship

  • Importance of constant lookout during circuit, and prior to turning to leg
  • Downwind checks
  • Planning approach and landing regarding wake turbulence from aircraft landing ahead

The downwind leg, base leg, final approach positioning and drills:

Factors affecting the final approach (and landing run):

  • Nil-wind, Headwind, Crosswind
  • Correct approach speed
  • Use of power
  • Weight

Types of approach (and landing):

  • Powered approach and landing
  • Glide approach and landing
  • Crosswind approach and landing
  • Short field approach and landing
  • Soft field approach and landing

Missed approach and go-around:

  • Correct positioning

Missed landing and go-around:

Effect of ground surface and gradient on the landing run:

Use of rotors:

  • Safeguarding the nosewheel

Use of brakes (if applicable):

The Complete Take-off, Circuit and Landing:

  • Circuit joining and leaving procedures

The Hold-off period, and Touchdown:

  • Ability to control height with pitch control, and airspeed with power
  • Ability to control direction
  • Ability to control and correct ballooning
  • Ability to cope with crosswind
  • Ground manoeuvring after landing

 

Advanced turning (up to 60 bank angles)

 

 

Aim: To carry out a coordinated level turn at steep angles of bank and to recognise and recover from a spiral dive. Also, entry and recovery from, and uses of a sideslipping turn (if applicable to type).

Airmanship:

  • Importance of lookout
  • Importance of maintaining orientation
  • Cockpit checks

360 turns: (up to 45 bank angle)

  • Level / Climbing / Descending
  • Wake turbulence

Steep level-turns (up to 60 bank angle):

  • Co-ordination
  • Use of power
 

The spiral dive:

  • If power applied - reduce
  • Recovery by use of roll and then pitch

 

Recognition of unusual attitudes; Prevention of dangerous conditions.

 

Aim: To recognise and recover from unusual attitudes to prevent the aircraft entering dangerous conditions.

Note: This exercise must not be practiced solo by the student

Airmanship:

  • HASELL checks

Aircraft limits:

  • (Refer to POH) Definition of Flight Envelope; Vne, Va, Vno, Vfe, Max bank, Max pitch, Max +ve and -ve "G"
  • Dangers associated with exceeding aircrafts limits
  • Need for inspection following flight outside envelope.

Aircraft Stability Characteristics:

  • Need to maintain +ve G
  • Pitch-positive tendencies
  • Roll Inertia.

Possible causes of unusual attitudes:

  • From inadvertent mishandling of controls at high speeds
  • From inadvertent mishandling of controls in a steep turn
  • From inadvertent mishandling controls following hitting own wake turbulence in a steep turn
  • Severe meteorological turbulence.
  • Loss of control following spatial disorientation.
  • Deliberate manoeuvres outside the pilot's ability.

Recognition of Unusual Attitudes:

  • Attitude in relation to horizon.
  • Speed and Energy State.
  • Instrument lag
 

Recovery Techniques from:

  • Nose high, wings level
  • Nose high, wings banked
  • Nose low, wings level,
  • Nose low, wings banked

Management of Controls during Simulation/Practice

  • Need for smooth positive inputs, control of "G"
  • Instructor to set up unusual attitude
  • Handover/passing of control

Motion Sickness

  • Exercise to be terminated at onset.