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Instructor » Fixed Wing Patter » Medium Turns



Adverse Yaw, shown by slowing aircraft down to 70kts and getting student to look at aircraft nose on a ref point then move control column to the right (works best to the right)

Note it is most noticeable if you roll to the Left for the student if they are sitting in the left seat.

Then show student what happens if we use rudder when we turn.

INSTRUCTOR (student to follow through)


Prominent Ref Pt (DI), Ref Alt, Lookout





Roll in with aileron (smoothly)

Balance with rudder (same direction)       

Increase back pressure with elevator

Check at 30º Angle of Bank, hold off


Here we are established in a medium turn to the left/right.

Note where the nose is in relation to the horizon, with this attitude we’ll maintain our altitude.

We have 30º angle of bank giving us a constant rate of turn.

The ball is centralised we are in balance.


Use scan technique


Lookout         blindspots


Instruments    30º A/B, in balance, maintaining ref alt


Exit – Anticipate ref pt by 10º (don’t use DI to show this)



Roll out with aileron (smoothly)

Balance with rudder

Decrease backpressure with elevator



Talk student through



Let student do the turn by them self and then critique them.

Show them a turn in the other direction with them following through and noting the different attitude in particular.



Climbing turn            set normal climb

                                    limit bank angle to 20º

                                    tendency to overbank                   NOTE decreasing ROC

Descending turn      set normal descent

                                    tendency to underbank

                                    limit bank angle to 30º                     NOTE increasing ROD

Works best turning to the right


Note: Student can practice levelling off from a climbing turn, this will help them when they get in the circuit