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Instructor » Fixed Wing Patter » Primary Control Effects

Primary Control Effects


Teach student how to taxi aircraft

While climbing out to training area talk about attitude and horizon

Show boundaries of training area


We are now going to look at our primary controls.  

When we pitch the aircraft the nose of the aircraft moves up and down, this movement is about our lateral axis. 

The controls to pitch the aircraft are called elevators and we use them by moving our control column forward and back.  

When we roll the aircraft one wing goes up the other goes down, this movement is about our longitudinal axis.  

The controls to roll the aircraft are called ailerons and we use them by moving our control column left or right.  

When the aircraft yaws the nose of the aircraft moves side to side, this movement is about our normal axis.  

To control yaw in our aircraft we use our rudders, by squeezing in our rudder pedals.


Let student take control and talk them through the three controls, and let them get a feel for flying the aircraft.

Ok now we are going to look at the secondary effects of using our controls in flight. 

Remembering back to the board the secondary effect of using our elevator is nil. 

The only effect is that if we leave our aircraft pitched up or down then our airspeed will change. 

If we pitch the aircraft up the airspeed will begin to decrease, and vice versa if we pitch the aircraft down the airspeed will begin to increase. 

The secondary effect of roll is yaw…. If we roll the aircraft to the left the aircraft will then begin to slip and yaw into the turn, and vice versa to the right. 

The secondary effect of yaw is roll…. If we yaw the aircraft to the left the aircraft will then begin to skid and roll in the direction of yaw, and vice versa to the right.



when showing secondary effects of yaw/roll let a/c enter a spiral dive so you can point out that you will end up with the same result in both cases.


Ok now we are going to have a look at the effect of airspeed on our controls. 

(slow aircraft down) 

At a slow speed our controls become light and less effective, and we require large movements to control the aircraft. 

(Let the student have a go flying at this slow speed). 

All right now we will speed the aircraft up and see how a faster speed affects our controls. 

You can see that the controls are now much firmer and more effective, only small movements of the controls are required to get the same effect.



You must have same slip stream with showing effect of air speed


Let student taxi back to park and talk through how to use mixture to shut a/c down.