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6.10 Position Referencing

6.10.2 Define: 

(a) Ground Position;

The Ground Position is the position on the ground directly beneath the aircraft.


(b) Dead Reckoning (DR) Position;

A DR Position is the assumed ground position based on calculation.

The information used to arrive at the D.R. position is never totally accurate.


(c) Fix;

A Fix is the position of an aircraft determined by any method other than by direct observation.

The methods used may include taking bearings or the use of electronic devices.


(d) Position Line.

A Position Line is a line drawn on a chart along which the aircraft is known to have been at a certain time.


6.10.4 Describe and apply the following position reference methods: 

(a) place name;

If the aircraft is over a named place, the position is reported by the name.

The place must, however, be prominent and well-known.

The place must not be so extensive as to give rise to ambiguity.

For example, an aircraft reported over Auckland, might be anywhere within an area of hundreds of square miles.


(b) place/bearing/distance; 

The reporting of positions by bearing and distance is widely used by the pilot navigator, although it is only possible in well-developed and well-mapped areas.

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