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PPL » Navigation » PPL Syllabus Navigation

Fundamentals of Air Navigation 

6.2 Form of the Earth 

6.2.2 Describe the general shape of the earth. 

6.2.4 Define and identify, on a diagram of the earth: 

(a) axis and direction of rotation; 

(b) geographic and magnetic poles; 

(c) the equator; 

(d) parallels of latitude; 

(e) meridians of longitude; 

(f) Greenwich (Prime) Meridian; 

(g) latitude/longitude. 

6.4 Direction on the Earth 

6.4.2 Describe the 360º method of indicating direction. 

6.4.4 Describe the earth's magnetic field. 

6.4.6 Define: 

(a) true north; 

(b) magnetic north; 

(c) compass north; 

(d) the cardinal directions of the earth; 

(e) the inter-cardinal directions of the earth; 

(f) true direction; 

(g) magnetic direction; 

(h) compass direction; 

(i) magnetic variation; 

(j) magnetic dip;

(k) an isogonal; 

(l) compass deviation; 

(m) true bearing; 

(n) magnetic bearing; 

(o) compass bearing; 

(p) relative bearing; 

(q) relative bearing using the clock method. 

6.4.8 Convert between true, magnetic and compass directions. 

6.4.10 Convert between relative, true, magnetic and compass bearings. 

6.4.12 Explain the processes, cautions and limitations when deriving track distances and bearings from a chart. 

6.6 Distance on the Earth

6.6.2 Define: 

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